BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus, a human skin and mucous membranes colonizer, could opportunistically cause a variety of infectious diseases. Frequently, it is resistant to methicillin (MRSA), and often, co-resistant to many clinically available antibiotics. MRSA is a major burden for healthcare systems and communities all over the world, especially in developing countries. We addressed the issue that more than a decade had passed since the last report about cumulative antibiogram for S. aureus from our center, whereas The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommends to analyze and report it on an annual basis in order to guide clinicians to select the best initial empiric antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: In a cross-sectional retrospective design, data of culture-proven S. aureus from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients at Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran, were collected from September 2018 to September 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) had been performed using either Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion or VITEK 2 automated system which is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Chi-squared test was used considering the critical p-value to be ≤ .05. RESULTS: Among 576 unique isolates, the overall prevalence of MRSA was 37.5%. Patients admitted to the infectious diseases ward and ICUs have a greater chance to have such an isolate. Methicillin resistance was predictive of resistance to most antibiotics: erythromycin (90.9%), clindamycin (85.4% including inducible resistance), gentamicin, cipro-/levo-/moxi-floxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (58.3%), tetracycline, and rifampin. Resistance rate of zero was observed for daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and (roughly) vancomycin. The prevalence of multiple-drug resistant (MDR) isolates was 48.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Although in this study, the prevalence of MRSA was lower than the previous ones from the same hospital, it is still far from the desired rates. Besides, resistance to clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were remarkable. So far, vancomycin is the best choice for empiric treatment of MRSA, with linezolid as the second choice. It is advised to avoid prescribing the newer antibacterial agents as long as the older ones are effective to prevent the emergence of MDR species.
Background and Aims Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), utilizes 100% oxygen at pressures greater than sea-level atmospheric pressure, for the treatment of conditions in which the tissues starve for oxygen. The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) has granted HBOT approval for the treatment of various conditions. On the other hand, applying informatics registry systems can improve care delivery, ameliorate outcomes, and reduce the costs and medical errors for the patients receiving HBOT treatment. Therefore, we aimed to design, develop, and evaluate a registry system for patients undergoing HBOT. Methods In the first phase, the conceptual and logical models were designed after conducting symposiums with experts and having other experts review the models. In the second phase, the system was developed on the web using ASP.NET and C# programming languages frameworks. The last phase involved Nielsen’s heuristic evaluation method for the system’s usability. Five experts evaluated the system, including three health information management specialists and two medical informatics specialists. Results The hyperbaric patient information registry system (HPIRS) interacts with three types of users—a specialist physician, a nurse, and a system administrator. A scenario for each predefined activity was designed, and all the information was stored in the SQL servers. The five experts independently found 152 issues, of which 84 were duplicates. The 68 distinct issues of the system were then resolved. Conclusions The design and development of such registry systems can make data available and stored carefully to improve clinical care and medical research and decrease costs and errors. These registries can provide the healthcare systems with E-health applications, improved data management, more secure data transfer, and support for statistical reporting. The implemented heuristic evaluation method can also provide a low-cost and readily available system to fix the issues of the designed systems.